Autism Spectrum: An Overview

Autism Spectrum: An Overview

By Vanika

Autism Spectrum: An Overview


What is Autism?

Autism, also referred to as Autism Spectrum or ASD, is a chronic neurodevelopmental condition that presents itself in the form of behavioral, social, and language/communication challenges. It’s referred to as a spectrum disorder as there are so many variations with different types of symptoms experienced and different intensities of symptoms. Symptoms include problems with interacting with people, limited interests, and repetitive behavior. 


Symptoms of ASD

People on the Autism Spectrum show a variation of symptoms based on intensity and type. However, some basic symptoms might or might not be present in the majority of people coping with ASD-


  • Difficulty in engaging in conversations 
  • Showing distress when their routine is disrupted 
  • Facing a hard time making eye contact 
  • Facial cues do not match verbal cues
  • Intense interest in certain topic/subject 


  • Problem expressing themselves, their needs, or their feeling in words


  • Lack of interest or enjoyment in activities


  • Absence or lack of response to someone trying to gain their attention


  • Sensory problems like sensitivity to light, taste, texture, or a certain smell


  • Repetitive behavior 


  • Trouble understanding others' points of view 


Often, neurological disorders go unnoticed or neglected in kids. For their well-being, it’s important to be well aware of some divergent symptoms so that they can get help on time. Some signs to watch out for detecting ASD in children are-


  • Lack of babbling by the age of one


  • Less smiling-happy expression by six months


  • Deficiency of single-worded words by 16 months


  • No two-word phrases by the age of two 


  • Loss of speech or social skills


  • No response to their own name 


  • Not reaching out for objects by the age of one 




Upon being diagnosed with ASD is further classified into one of the three levels -


Level 1- High Functioning


Considered a mild form of autism. A person suffering from this may face a hard time forming and maintaining social relationships. Apart from that behavior and functioning are only mildly affected. They do not require less assistance to get through things as compared to the other levels.


Level 2- Moderately Severe


Under level 2, social difficulties, communication skills, and behavior, in general, are more divergent than level 1. They require more support and assistance.


Level 3- Severe


Challenges faced by people on level 3 are much more severe than the other two levels. They do not possess the ability to rely on themselves and live independently. Some problems that they face are the inability to communicate verbally, sensory issues, restrictive and repetitive behavior, and facing a hard time adapting to change. 


Causes of Autism


The exact risk factors of ASD are still unknown but research suggests that genes play an important role in the development of autism. Other risk factors involve premature birth, advanced paternal age, and substance abuse by the mother during pregnancy.




There is no cure present for autism, however, there are treatments present to assist with some symptoms. Since there is such a wide range of symptoms present, there are a lot of treatments available. Some of them are medications, and therapy such as behavioral and developmental therapy. 


A supporting, healthy, and nurturing environment is important for someone suffering from ASD. There is nothing wrong with being divergent, it’s much more important to focus on the unique characteristics than the differences. Neurodevelopmental disorders are not something one can fix, it’s better to focus on providing unconditional support and love.

To know more about ADHD Across Different Life Stages : Symptoms, Impact, Risk Factors read here

To know more about Ways to Be an Effective Ally to Someone Suffering Mentally read here

Tags: #Autism #Spectrum #ASD #Neurodevelopmental #Chronic #Behavioral #Social #CommunicationChallenges #PeopleInteraction #RepetitiveBehaviour #Behavioral #Therapy #DevelopmentalTherapy


Tags: #autism #spectrum #ASD #neurodevelopmental #chronic #behavioral #social #communication #challenges #people #interaction #repetitive #behaviour #BehavioralTherapy #DevelopmentalTherapy

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